By Gabriel Sottas, Inge L. Ryhming
The goal of the 1989 GAMM Workshop on 3D-Computation of Incompressible inner Flows was once the simulation of a pragmatic incompressible stream box in an immense business program. In view of the problems occupied with formulating this sort of attempt case, requiring the provision of an experimental information base, severe care needed to be taken within the collection of the right kind one. Professor I. L. Ryhming's idea, that the movement via a Francis turbine configuration or components thereof will be possible as a try out case, due to the numerical demanding situations in addition to the prospect to supply an experimental information base by utilizing the experimental amenities of the Hydraulic Machines and Fluid Mechanics Institute (IMHEF) on the Swiss Federal Institute of know-how in Lausanne (EPFL), was once permitted by way of the GAMM Committee in April 1987. a systematic committee, shaped lower than the chairmanship of Professor I. L. Ryhming, met once or twice to settle on the Francis turbine configuration, the attempt case requisites, and so on. , wherein the layout enter got here from the water turbine specialists. This committee made up our minds to limit the stories to the 3 following normal functions for the easiest working element of the turbine: • simulation of the 3D move in a Francis runner in rotation • simulation of the 3D circulate within the distributor (stay and advisor vane jewelry) of this turbine • simulation of the 3D stream in an elbow draft tube The simultaneous computation of 2 or 3 of those geometries used to be encouraged.
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Extra resources for 3D-Computation of Incompressible Internal Flows: Proceedings of the GAMM Workshop held at EPFL, 13–15 September 1989, Lausanne, Switzerland
To define an accurate origin for each axis of motion, electronic logic gates are used, firstly to rectify a contactless switch output and secondly to combine this output with the corresponding encoder signal output. The resulting signal is used to permit the resetting of the electronic counters. 2 " for the translational and the rotational motions, respectively. 2" is achieved in the probe positioning. 3 m and the probe can be rotated through 360". THE INSTRUMENT A TION OF THE RUNNER The pressure transducers were mounted flush with the blade surfaces of the runner.
2 ' With these reference values, the problem of the poor draft-tube behaviour which gave an unusual hillchart with two peaks is solved. Thus, the modified energy coefficient ",ref and the efficiency were computed using this reference station, and are reported as a function of the discharge coefficient in the hillchart in Figure 7. 25°. 88 I ! 1 Fig . 20 Fig . 9 Photography of the inlet edge cavitation development at the best efficiency operating point 41 CAVITATION The cavitation behaviour of the runner is also very interesting since it provides a rough idea of the pressure distribution in the runner.
The stayring consists of 24 stay-vanes and the distributor of 24 guide-vanes. 5' respectively, see Figure 1. A mechanical encoder provides a readout of the guide vane opening angle a. 37', as indicated in Figure 1, the opening angle a is related to the guide vane angle as follows : The runner has 13 blades, each individually casted in epoxy resin reinforced with carbon fiber. The blades are fixed in between an aluminium hub and shroud. 4 m. Top view of the horizontal cross-sections of both the pressure and the suction sides of the blade are given in Figure 2.
3D-Computation of Incompressible Internal Flows: Proceedings of the GAMM Workshop held at EPFL, 13–15 September 1989, Lausanne, Switzerland by Gabriel Sottas, Inge L. Ryhming