A Dictionary of Environmental History - download pdf or read online

By Ian D. Whyte

Professor Whyte's A Dictionary of Environmental heritage provides in one quantity a finished reference paintings overlaying the earlier 12,000 years of the Earth's environmental background. An creation to the self-discipline is by way of virtually 1,000 entries protecting key terminology, occasions, areas, dates, subject matters, in addition to the foremost personalities within the historical past of the self-discipline. Entries diversity from shorter real debts to large mini-essays on key subject matters and concerns. absolutely cross-referenced with an in depth bibliography, this pioneering paintings presents an authoritative but available source that may shape crucial examining for teachers, practitioners and scholars of environmental background and similar disciplines.

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Ancient countryside, which had not been transformed in medieval times by the widespread adoption of open field systems, was characterized by dispersed settlement in farms and hamlets and had considerable continuity from earlier, even prehistoric times. Planned countryside developed in early historic times with the establishment of nucleated villages and open field systems (not necessarily together). The possible reasons for this contrast have been discussed by Williamson (2003). ancient woodland A term coined by Rackham (1986) to describe British woodlands on sites known to have been continuously wooded since AD1600, on the basis that records of land use from this time onwards are usually fairly complete while those for earlier periods are increasingly fragmentary.

AD600 to AD1150– 1200. Around AD700 they developed massive stone construction and between the C10 and C12 buildings with up to six storeys. Chaco Canyon developed into a mini-empire linked by hundreds of km of local roads, supported by a peasantry and ruled by an elite. AD1170. AD1130 seems to have precipitated social stress with evidence of war, burnt settlements and cannibalism. 600 years later they attributed the construction of the ruined buildings to the ‘ancient 31 Anasazi | Andes ones’. The Anasazi did not collapse totally; they dispersed in the face of environmental pressures during two major drought cycles AD1130–80 and AD1275–99.

The wild ancestors of the first cultivated cereals were adapted to open sites, poor soils and dry summers. The first known domesticated forms of barley and wheat are recorded from Jericho around 10000BP. 6000BC. Early farming communities may also have herded semi-domesticated gazelles (see Natufian culture) (Bar-Yousef 1998, Bellwood 2005, Byrd 1994, Sherrat 1980). agricultural origins: South Asia In S Asia there were indigenous centres of domestication in India as well as diffusion from SW Asia. There were moving frontiers of colonization by agricultural populations as well as static frontiers of interaction between hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

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A Dictionary of Environmental History by Ian D. Whyte

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