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By Carl Robert Whitehead

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H=h=`pt! at`x«! ghj«! ’ Whereas the personal pronouns given in Table 8 are used for both subject and object arguments, the unmarked forms of the demonstrative pronouns given in Table 11 are only used for subject NPs. For the object, a clitic is added which varies according to number: generally =d ‘SG’, =h ‘DL’ and =t ‘PL’, as in (52). 4). Table 12 gives the object and genitive equivalents of the masculine forms from Table 11. It will be noted that there are again two genitive suffixes but that the second is =t« rather than =x`p«.

HptdRdl«! h=pt=d Shem that=M=OJ O O2 V Mxh! dhsh! jhm`! «mc`oj«p«pd-! mxh! dhsh! jhm`! «,m,s`o,j,p«p«=h 1S eighty kina ASS-1S-give-PA/PFV-3S/DSO=IND ‘Reuben gave him, that is Shem, eighty kina. ’ In summary, the subject is not case-marked, is normally the first of the overt NPs and also usually the actor and, therefore, cross-referenced by the verb suffix24. The object normally occurs after the subject (when both are overtly specified) and, if it is human (therefore potentially confusable as the subject), it is case-marked as an object and cross-referenced by the verb prefix.

H=ot! dual =`pt hpt`pt! h=pt=`pt ht`pt! h=t=`pt hodpt! h=o`=pt hrt`pt! h=rt=`pt! plural =` hpt`! h=pt=` ht`! h=t=` hod! h=o`=` hrt`! h=rt=` The masculine forms are used when all the referents are male (50) or when gender is deemed unimportant. The feminine forms are used when any of the referents are female and gender is deemed important (51). The honorific forms are used primarily to refer to older people, and the diminutive primarily to children, but only when the speaker chooses to be specific.

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A reference grammar of Menya, an Angan language of Papua New Guinea by Carl Robert Whitehead


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