By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph offers a global standpoint on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been discovered over the past decade via learn and functional adventure on find out how to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the publication, normal clinical matters are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the atypical organic gains that take place within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an summary of equipment at present used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the publication is a suite of nearby surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu nations and Australia, and case reviews of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case examine presents an cutting edge method of assessing the commercial worth of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a precious device for selection makers.
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Extra resources for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
14 Temperature time series at several depths in Lake Goitsche, subbasin Niemegk (position XN5), showing oscillations cessation of the wind will result in internal waves, where the epilimnion and hypolimnion usually move in opposite directions in a frequency determined by the lake morphometry and the density stratification of the water column. At a fixed position, temperature oscillations of a distinct frequency can be recorded (Fig. 14). Higher modes have also been reported, and in a few cases, they are dominant (Vidal et al.
The solubility of many constituents increase with decreasing pH, in particular carbonates, metal (hydr)oxides, and silicates. Magnesium (Fig. 17a), aluminum, the heavy metals including iron (Fig. 17b), and silicon (Fig. 17c) follow this pattern. Whereas ferric iron and oxidized manganese species increasingly precipitate with increasing pH, concentrations of iron and manganese can still be elevated under neutral conditions due to the high solubility of iron(II) and manganese (II) at anoxic conditions.
E. dissolving oxygen in water decreases the density due to an expanding volume. As a consequence, a water column can be stably stratified due to its increasing CO2 concentration towards greater depths. The sudden release of large volumes of dissolved gases has been documented from tropical volcanic lakes. Such limnic eruptions have cost the lives of 1,700 human beings in the neighborhood of Lakes Monoun and Nyos, both located in Cameroon, in 1984 and 1986, respectively. Despite much research, the release mechanisms of these events are not agreed upon.
Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines by Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer