By Abbas Kazmi, James H Clark, George A Kraus, Birgit Kamm, Rainer Höfer, Sören Henke, Ludwig Theuvsen, Katerina Stamatelatou, Wim Mulder, Zsanett Herseczki, Kostas Theodoropoulos, Piergiuseppe Morone
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Additional info for Advanced Oil Crop Biorefineries
120 On the one hand, the European potential for producing pumpkin oil is high because the climate conditions are favourable. On the other hand, the production is expensive because the crop requires high labour input. Therefore, low-wage countries like India and China have a better competitive position due to their lower production costs. 5 Crop Growing Potential for Non-European Oils Besides those oils already used in Europe, there are other potentially usable oils. Examples are lallemantia oil, saﬄower oil, common evening primrose oil, cannabis oil, castor oil, crambe oil and jatropha oil.
Vienna, pp. 397–422, 2009. 74. E. Cahoon, H. Damude and A. Kinney, Modifying Vegetable Oils for Food and Non-food Purposes, in Oil Crops (Handbook of Plant Breeding), J. Vollmann and R. ), Vienna, pp. 31–56, 2009. 75. R. Ku¨hl and V. Hart, Marktstruktur- und Verwendungsanalyse von O¨l- und Eiweißpﬂanzen, Ufop Schriften Heft 34, Berlin, 2010. 76. 2010). 77. 2010). 78. 2010). 79. europa. 2010). 80. 2010). 81. Ista Mielke, Palm Oil Price Cycles: The Factors Determining Price-making of Palm Oil and of Oils Generally, Hamburg, 2003.
The soap is converted to crude tall oil (CTO) by acidulation with sulfuric acid. CTO is not a triacylglyceride like most vegetable oils, but is actually a mixture of ﬁve components with diﬀerent boiling points, which are split by fractionation into heads (which boil ﬁrst), then tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), distilled tall oil (DTO, a mixture of fatty and rosin acids), tall oil rosin (TOR) and pitch (the unsaponiﬁable residue). 36 Chapter 1 TOFA is similar to seed oil oleic acid. Important applications of TOFA are the manufacture of TOFA esters as solvents, lubricants and carrier oils, alkyd resins and dimer acids.
Advanced Oil Crop Biorefineries by Abbas Kazmi, James H Clark, George A Kraus, Birgit Kamm, Rainer Höfer, Sören Henke, Ludwig Theuvsen, Katerina Stamatelatou, Wim Mulder, Zsanett Herseczki, Kostas Theodoropoulos, Piergiuseppe Morone