By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. accordingly, expert, prioritized, and potent responses necessitate an knowing of the epidemic variety among and inside of nations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the long run dimension of South Asia's epidemic is determined by an efficient two-pronged method: to start with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to lessen stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans carrying out excessive threat behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This assessment was once undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Additional resources for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
Although injecting drug use is mainly an urban problem, drug use is widespread in both urban and rural areas. Between 1989 and 2005 the Central Blood Bank, Kabul, reported 67 HIV-positive cases out of 125,832 blood samples screened at central and provincial levels (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 2006). In one community profile of drug users in Afghanistan, almost half of all heroin users started their practices while in Iran or Pakistan (GTZ 2005). Few harm reduction programs, including needle exchange, are in place to break transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Ultimately, transmission occurs somewhat independent of easily defined high-risk groups. Strategic responses to such situations should include both targeted interventions for high-risk groups and an early emphasis on reducing the potential for transmission in the more general population through enhanced sexually transmitted infection (STI) services, broader behavioral change programs, and aggressive condom promotion. 3 schematically depicts a generalizing epidemic. Generalizing epidemics occur in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, but as we discuss subsequently, many locations in South Asia do not exhibit the defining conditions—such as substantial transmission beyond the high-risk networks—to sustain and amplify this kind of epidemic.
India’s National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has collected a wealth of HIV prevalence data from prenatal clinic clients over several years through its sentinel surveillance system. 2 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 prenatal clinic patients Source: APAC 2005a, b; NACO 2005. 2 0 total men women Source: APAC 2005b. 0 0 prenatal clinic district prenatal clinic subdistrict general population, male general population, female Source: Blanchard and others 2005. ranged from 1 to 2 percent since 2000, with the prevalence in Tamil Nadu seeming to decline in recent years (NACO 2005).
AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series) by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,