By Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos
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Additional info for Anaerobic reactors
Stimulating and inhibiting concentrations of some cations Cation Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Stimulating 100 to 200 75 to 150 200 to 400 100 to 200 Source: McCarty (1964) Concentration (mg/L) Moderately inhibiting 2,500 to 4,500 1,000 to 1,500 2,500 to 4,500 3,500 to 5,500 Strongly inhibiting 8,000 3,000 12,000 8,000 36 (b) Anaerobic reactors Toxicity by ammonia Usually, the presence of ammonia bicarbonate, resulting from the digestion of sewage rich in urea- or protein-based compounds, is beneﬁcial to the digester as a source of nitrogen and as a buffer for pH changes.
3 Temperature Among the physical factors that affect microbial growth, temperature is one of the most important in the selection of species. Microorganisms are not capable of controlling their internal temperature and, consequently, the temperature inside the cell is determined by the external ambient temperature. 6): • • • minimum temperature, below which growth is not possible optimum temperature, in which growth is maximum maximum temperature, above which growth is also not possible The maximum and minimum temperatures deﬁne the limits of the range in which growth is possible, and the optimum temperature is that in which growth rate is maximum.
Nutritional and physical conditions enable the selection of the organisms better adapted to the environment, which may vary quickly and frequently due to changes in the supply of nutrients or in the physical conditions. Both physical and chemical characteristics of the environment inﬂuence microbial growth. Physical factors usually act as selective agents, while chemical factors can or cannot be selective. Some elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, which are usually required in relatively large amounts, can be very important in the selection of the prevailing species.
Anaerobic reactors by Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos