By Sidney A. Gauthreaux
Animal Migration, Orientation, and Navigation offers some of the features of animal migration, together with the evolution of migration, climatic and meteorological impacts, and bioenergetics. This ebook discusses the physiological regulate, sensory structures, orientation and navigation, and organic clocks and phenology elements of animal migration.
Organized into 5 chapters, this ebook starts with an summary of the migration ideas of animals within the context of an area continuum. this article then explains the impact of brief- and long term climatic cycles at the spectrum of migratory styles in nature. different chapters think about the vigorous necessities of other migration recommendations and the strength shops of the migrants. This publication discusses besides the physiological foundation of animal migration, with emphasis on endocrinal findings at the timing and lively elements of alternative migration techniques. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with the mechanisms utilized in course discovering by means of migrating animals.
This publication is a beneficial source for biologists and ecologists.
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Extra resources for Animal Migration, Orientation and Navigation
For species facing environmental uncer tainty, we would expect considerable "bet-hedging" especially where juvenile mortality is likely to be high (Stearns, 1976). Spatial strategies result from selective balance between making use of available resources and 38 Hugh Dingle dispersal to find new exploitable resources. The interplay of these pressures determines the movement of individuals and the spatial pattern of the population. As the foregoing examples have shown, evolutionary calibra tion and fine tuning have produced a diversity of strategies on that com mon theme.
Thoracicus is almost as diverse. The gerrid system is maximally flexible as both longand short-winged morphs are known from at least some populations of all the species studied (Vepsäläinen, 1978). Habitats can exhibit morphism cycles as populations go extinct, are reestablished by long-winged im migrants, and finally evolve to the appropriate morph equilibrium under the influence of the selective regime characteristic of the habitat (Järvinen and Vepsäläinen, 1976). The genetic basis for the alary polmorphism in gerrids involves Mendelian segregation with short wings dominant to long wings (Vepsäläinen, 1974b, 1978).
Fur ther studies on the adaptive advantage of flightlessness are clearly needed. In still more permanent habitats corixids may show wing polymorphism as well as variation in flight muscle development. Patterns of flight in Finnish (Pajunen, 1970) and North American (Scudder, 1964) corixids also seem to involve migration in temporary habitats and flightlessness in more perma nent ones. The adaptive significance of variations in wing muscle histolysis and development appear to be associated with the diversion of energy and materials to other purposes, primarily reproduction (Young, 1965), but possibly also to maintaining basic metabolic needs during long periods of diapause as in Leptinotarsa (de Kort, 1969).
Animal Migration, Orientation and Navigation by Sidney A. Gauthreaux