By Hermann Kurthen, Werner Bergmann, Rainer Erb
Considering unification, Germany has skilled profound alterations, together with the reawakening of xenophobic hate crime, anti-Semitic incidents, and racist violence. This booklet offers the latest examine performed through a group of yankee and German specialists in political technological know-how, sociology, mass conversation, and heritage. They examine the measure of antisemitism, xenophobia, remembrance, and Holocaust wisdom in German public opinion; the teams and corporations that propagate prejudice and hate; and the German, American, and Jewish perceptions of, and reactions to, those phenomena.
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Extra info for Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification
For the first time since the early 1970s, surveys on antisemitism in the population were carried out in 1986, 1987, and 1989 (Institut fur Demoskopie 1986, 1987, Bergmann and Erb 1991a, EmnidInstitut 1989), and they yielded the same results: about 15% of the West German population was strongly antisemitic, with great discrepancies between generations, reflecting their different political socialization. 2 Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany 23 In comparison to research findings from the 1950s, one could speak of a slow but steady decline in anti-Jewish attitudes in West Germany.
19 However, Jewish communities have been subjected to telephone threats and defamatory letters. These appear to be exceptional incidents, according to a nonrepresentative study conducted by Alphons Silbermann and Herbert A. Sallen in 1990. A large percentage of Jews questioned, considered many Germans to be antisemitic, but hardly any of them had personally experienced discrimination at work or in their communities (Silbermann and Sallen 1992, 47). In assessing the development of violence, it is important to take into account the escalation process and the fact that such incidents often occur in waves.
4. "Jews are exploiting the National Socialist Holocaust for their own purposes" Sample Year Agree Strongly Agree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Don't Know West Germany 1990 1994 1990 1994 13% 18 4 4 32% 26 16 15 25% 25 34 36 11% '3 19% 18 25 24 East Germany 21 20 Sources: Jodice 1991, Goiub 1994. adolescents—particularly less educated, right-wing-oriented male manual laborers. This finding is corroborated by media reports of antisemitic actions, as well as critninological evaluations of offenses.
Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification by Hermann Kurthen, Werner Bergmann, Rainer Erb