By H.A. Kiehne
This sensible reference continues to be the main entire consultant to the basic theories, ideas, and techniques used for battery operation and layout. It contains new and revised chapters targeting the protection, functionality, caliber, and enhancement of varied batteries and battery structures. From car, electrochemical, and high-energy functions to procedure implementation, choice, and standardization, the second one version offers specialist discussions on electrochemical strength garage, the benefits of battery-powered traction, the disposal and recycling of used batteries, danger prevention, and the chemistry and physics of lithium fundamental batteries.
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Extra info for Battery Technology Handbook, Second Edition (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
8 by the solid curve as the combination of anodic and cathodic current/voltage curves. Copyright © 2003 by Expert Verlag. All Rights Reserved. 8 The current/voltage curve. The horizontal axis (abscissa) represents polarization Z ¼ U Uo , the vertical axis (ordinate) current density i, which is synonymous to the reaction rate. io is the exchange current density that characterizes the dynamic equilibrium. According to Eq. (14), polarization is the sum of overvoltage and ohmic voltage drop. In practice polarization is always determined.
12 Heat generation in valve regulated lead acid batteries by charging and overcharging, referred to a current of 1 A. When the internal oxygen cycle is established, almost all the overcharging current is consumed by the internal oxygen cycle (center bar in the graph). The bar on the right corresponds to a vented battery. 8 mO per 100 Ah of nominal capacity, as in Fig. 13. Copyright © 2003 by Expert Verlag. All Rights Reserved. 4 V is reached, the current is reduced and, as a consequence, Joule heating and the reversible heat effect caused by the charging reaction are reduced too.
Mole 1 . The lead-acid battery may be taken as an example: In the usually applied concentration range, diluted H2 SO4 is dissociated mainly into Hþ and HSO4 ions. Only about 1% of the H2 SO4 molecules dissociate into 2 ? Hþ and SO24 . In consideration of the actual state of dissociation, the cell reaction can be written Pb þ PbO2 þ 2 ? Hþ þ 2 ? HSO4 , 2 ? PbSO4 þ 2 ? H2 O ð9Þ The free enthalpy of this reaction is DG ¼ À372:6 kJ. When this value is inserted into Eq. 083 mole/L ð&10 wt%Þ. 1 shows battery systems, their cell reaction, nominal voltage Uo and theoretical speciﬁc energy that is derived by the above thermodynamic laws, and in Column 9 the actually reached speciﬁc energy.
Battery Technology Handbook, Second Edition (Electrical and Computer Engineering) by H.A. Kiehne