By Ajay Singh, Nagina Parmar, Ramesh C. Kuhad
Bioaugmentation, biostimulation and biocontrol ways utilizing microbial inoculants, biofertilizers, biochemicals and natural amendments enhance soil biology, fertility and crop productiveness by means of offering plant growth-promoting nutrition and suppressing soil-borne illnesses and plant-parasitic nematodes. Our wisdom of microbial variety and its functionality in soils has been elevated vastly as a result of availability of a wealth of knowledge received via fresh advances within the improvement of molecular equipment and metagenomics for the review of microbial range and features within the rhizosphere atmosphere of soil.
Chapters facing the appliance of biofertilizers and natural amendments are contributed via specialists – professionals within the region of soil technology together with microbiology and molecular biology – from educational associations and the industry.
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Additional info for Bioaugmentation, Biostimulation and Biocontrol
In particular, IAA production increases in conditions of higher pH, limited carbon and higher quantities of tryptophan (Spaepen et al. 2009). Thus far, six pathways for the biosynthesis of IAA have been identified in rhizobacteria, five of which are tryptophan dependant and one which is tryptophan independent. Instead of tryptophan, this pathway depends on the presence of indole-3-glycerolphosphate. Some rhizobacteria have several IAA biosynthesis pathways. In plants, most IAA are found in a conjugated form that allows for storage and prevents degradation (Spaepen et al.
2007; Rodriguez and Frioni 2003). These diazotrophs manage important biological functions by symbiotically interacting with Rhizobium populations within the rhizosphere and help create a beneficiary region where interacting microorganisms benefit from additional nutrient resources (Halbleib and Ludden 2000; Gaind et al. 2007). 1 Interaction of Rhizobium with Azotobacter/Azospirillum Interactions of Azotobacter/Azospirillum with the Rhizobium as co-inoculants have been observed to be synergistic in a majority of studies conducted under laboratory, greenhouse or field conditions.
Indirect impact of PGPR is usually achieved by production of plant hormones (gibberellins, cytokinins, and auxins), by increasing the plant tolerance to diseases and releasing heavy metal binding components, such as methallothioneins and phytochelatines, which are useful in the bioremediation of contaminants (Wu et al. 2006). Recently, the benefits of combining endophytic bacteria with plants for increased toxic metal contaminated soil remediation have been successfully demonstrated (Rajkumar et al.
Bioaugmentation, Biostimulation and Biocontrol by Ajay Singh, Nagina Parmar, Ramesh C. Kuhad