By Peter Grunwald
Content material: 1. fundamentals in carbohydrate chemistry / Heinrich Hühnerfuss -- 2. Glycoconjugates : a short evaluate / Peter Grunwald -- three. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in attractiveness tactics / Thisbe ok. Lindhorst -- four. Glycoside hydrolases / Motomitsu Kitaoka -- five. Disaccharide phosphorylases : mechanistic variety and alertness within the glycosciences / Christiane Luley-Goedl and Bernd Nidetzky -- 6. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of nucleotide sugars : novel enzymes, novel substrates, novel items, and novel routes / Leonie Engels and Lothar Elling -- 7. Iteratively performing glycosyltransferases / Marta Luzhetska and Andreas Bechthold -- eight. Bacterial glycosyltransferases taken with molecular mimicry of mammalian glycans / Warren Wakarchuk -- nine. Sulfotransferases and sulfatases : sulfate amendment of carbohydrates / Eli Chapman and Sarah R. Hanson -- 10. Glycosylation in health and wellbeing and illness / Peter Grunwald -- eleven. Sialic acid derivatives, analogues, and mimetics as organic probes and inhibitors of sialic acid spotting proteins / Joe Tiralongo and Thomas Haselhorst -- 12. Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism for chemoenzymatic syntheses of advanced oligosaccharides / Julian Thimm and Joachim Thiem -- thirteen. From gene to product : tailored oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by way of enzyme and substrate engineering / Jürgen Seibel -- 14. Synthesis and amendment of carbohydrates through metabolic pathway engineering in microorganisms / Xian-wei Liu ... [et al.] -- 15. Metabolic pathway engineering for hyaluronic acid construction / Esteban Marcellin, Wendy Y. Chen, and Lars okay. Nielsen -- sixteen. Microbial rhamnolipids / Markus M. Müller ... [et al.] -- 17. Chitin-converting enzymes / Karin Moss ... [et al.] -- 18. Linear and cyclic oligosaccharides / Hajime Taniguchi -- 19. Fungal degradation of plant oligo- and polysaccharides / Ronald P. de Vries ... [et al.] -- 20. Bacterial suggestions for plant mobilephone degradation and their genomic info / Yutaka Tamaru and Roy H. Doi -- 21. layout of effective multienzymatic reactions for cellulosic biomass processing / Anne S. Meyer
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Additional resources for Carbohydrate-modifying biocatalysts
Raffinose belongs to the group of non-reducing sugars. 1. 4 Polysaccharides The most important polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, and cellulose consist of d-glucose subunits. In the case of starch, which is the major photoassimilation product of green plants, two components have to 13 14 Basics in Carbohydrate Chemistry be distinguished, 20% amylose and about 80% amylopectin. Amylose forms unbranched chains of d-glucose units that are linked by a-1,4′-glycosidic bonds (Fig. 10), while amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide.
These large aggregates in turn make cellulose to be insoluble in water. 12 β-d-Glucose units are linearly linked by β-1,4’-glycosidic bonds forming cellulose. Like cellulose the polysaccharide chitin (Chapter 17) possesses b-1,4′-glycosidic linkages. It differs from cellulose insofar as it 15 16 Basics in Carbohydrate Chemistry exhibits an N-acetylamino group instead of an hydroxy group at the C2 position. Chitin is the major structural component of the shells of crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimps as well as of the exoskeletons of many insects.
1993) 683–690. , Chemie der Kohlenhydrate, Monosaccharide und Derivate, G. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart (1991). , Angew. , 104 (1992) 1577–1593. , Top. Curr. , 267 (2007) 37–63. Trommer-Test, see CD Römpp Chemie Lexikon (ed. ), G. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart (1995). , Molecules, 9 (2004) 902–912. , Angew. Chem. Int. , 48 (2009), 1900–1934. 1 INTRODUCTION Glycans are basic components of each cell, which are formed from covalently linked saccharide units. They are often found to be attached to other molecules (aglycones) and constitute the large group of socalled glycoconjugates.
Carbohydrate-modifying biocatalysts by Peter Grunwald