By Leszek Rutkowski, Jörg Siekmann, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, Lotfi A. Zadeh
This textbook covers the entire major subspecialties in cardiology, together with a wide share of case stories that illustrate the foundations of medical perform. Self trying out questions accompany every one case. Authored by way of best cardiologists, this is often an up to the moment, good illustrated, middle cardiological textual content for these getting ready for the professional examinations.
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Additional info for Cardiology Core Curriculum: A Problem Based Approach
This approach will usually lead to the correct cardiac diagnosis. Furthermore, correct interpretation of these findings provides an invaluable assessment of the severity of cardiac disease and a basis for the interpretation of subsequent, imperfect cardiac tests. If the clinician who is primarily responsible for the care of the patient carefully follows this approach, then subsequent advice given to the patient regarding options for treatment will have taken into account all the readily available, pertinent background information.
References 1 Campeau L. Grading of angina pectoris. Circulation 1976;54:522–3. 2 Zimetbaum P, Josephson ME. Evaluation of the patient with palpitations. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1369–73. 3 Myers KA, Farquhar DRE. Does this patient have clubbing? JAMA 2001;286:341–7. 4 Cook DJ, Simel DL. Does this patient have abnormal central venous pressure? JAMA 1996;275:630–4. 5 Carabello BA, Crawford FA. Valvular heart disease. Review article. N Engl J Med 1997;337:32–41. 6 Choudhry NK, Etchells EE. Does this patient have aortic regurgitation?
8 Chronic aortic regurgitation. S1, first heart sound; S2, second heart sound; S3, third heart sound; SEM, systolic ejection flow murmur; EDM, early diastolic decrescendo murmur; LSE, left sternal edge; MDM, Austin–Flint middiastolic murmur diastolic, decrescendo murmur6 beginning with A2 (best heard using the diaphragm of the stethoscope at the left sternal edge, or base, with the patient leaning forward during expiration). Severe aortic regurgitation can affect the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve in diastole and create a mid-diastolic, rumbling murmur (heard best at the apex with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position), called the Austin–Flint murmur (which is almost always preceded by an S3).
Cardiology Core Curriculum: A Problem Based Approach by Leszek Rutkowski, Jörg Siekmann, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, Lotfi A. Zadeh